Why are women living longer than men?

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men – but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn’t live longer than men in the 19th century. What’s the reason why women are more likely to live longer than men? And زيادة استماعات ساوند كلاود why is this difference growing over time? There isn’t much evidence and we only have partial solutions. We recognize that biological, behavioral and environmental factors contribute to the fact that women have longer lives than men, however, we do not know how strong the relative contribution of each of these factors is.

In spite of the amount of weight, we are aware that a large portion of the reason women live longer than men today and not in the past, is to have to do with the fact that some significant non-biological elements have changed. These are the factors that are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women’s longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men

The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As you can see, all countries are above the diagonal parity line – which means that in every country the newborn girl is likely to live for longer than a newborn boy.1

This chart illustrates that, even though women enjoy an advantage throughout the world, the differences between countries can be significant. In Russia women have a longer life span than males; while in Bhutan the difference is less than half a year.

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The advantage for women in life expectancy was smaller in developed countries that it is today.

Let’s now look at how the gender advantage in life expectancy has changed over time. The following chart shows the male and female life expectancies at the birth in the US during the period 1790 to 2014. Two aspects stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. Men and women in the US live much, much longer today than a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, there’s an increase in the gap between men and women: female advantage in life expectancy used be very modest however, it has increased significantly over the last century.

It is possible to verify that these are applicable to other countries with information by clicking on the “Change country” option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.

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